What is Compost?
is a mixture of decayed organic materials decomposed by microorganism
in a warm, moist, and aerobic environment, releasing nutrients
into readily available forms for plant use.
Why Use Compost?
- There is a need for sustainable
production through integrated nutrient management.
- Compost produces less methane
than uncomposted rice straw when incorporated in the soil.
- Solves problem of declining
- Corrects micronutrient problems
like zinc deficiency.
- Big savings, increased farmer self-reliance.
- Increases yield.
- Improves water-holding capacity of the
- Improves aeration.
- Provides humus or organic matter,
vitamins, hormones and plant enzymes which are not supplied by
- Acts as buffer to changes in
- Kills pathogenic organisms,
weeds, and other unwanted seeds when a temperature of over 60°C is reached.
- Mature compost quickly comes
into equilibrium with the soil.
- Different materials can be
blended or mixed together which can increase the nutrient content
of the compost fertilizer.
Ginintuang Masaganang Ani
program recommends basal application of 6-8 bags inorganic fertilizers
and 8 bags organic fertilizer per hectare. By composting all
the rice straw after harvest, this requirement is adequately
met, and one does not need to buy commercial organic fertilizers.
Enriched with animal manure,
nitrogen rich farm residues like legumes, and acted upon by microorganisms
like fungus Trichoderma sp. And nitrogen fixing bacteria, Azotobacter
3 Ways of Making
This is a slow process, requiring
3-4 months before farm wastes are fully decomposed and ready
for use as compost fertilizer. This means that the fertilizer
can only be used after one planting season. This also requires
a bigger composting area. However, this method involves only
eight steps, and it is inexpensive to produce, requiring no extensive
input except labor.
With the aid of fungus activator
Trichoderma harzianum, decomposition of farm wastes is
accelerated to just 3-4 weeks! This means that the compost can
be used in the next planting season. This involves ten steps.
Employing both a fungus activator
and a nitrogen-fixing bacteria, farm wastes are first decomposed
by Trichoderma sp. for 2-3 weeks, after which the resulting
compost is inoculated with live N-fixing bacteria Azotobacter
sp. Incubation for 1 week produces a nitrogen-enriched compost
that can supply a rice crops total N requirement,
depending on the material used, soil condition, and planting
season. This involves 10 steps.
Note: For the Rapid and Bio-Enriched Methods of composting,
procedures in preparing these microorganism activators are available
at the Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (BIOTECH)
of the University of the Philippines Los Baños (UPLB)
College, Laguna; and the Department of Science and Technology
Guide to Compost Production
Most of the
steps are common to the three methods of composting. Step 4 or
the addition of fungus activator, however, does not apply to
the traditional method. Step 8 of the addition of bacteria inocula,
on the other hand, applies only to the Bio-Enriched method of