A Hybrid rice variety, also referred to as the F1,
is the direct product of crossing two genetically different parents.
In hybrids, the positive qualities of both parents are combined
resulting in a phenomenon called hybrid vigor or
heterosis, where young seedlings are highly and the
mature plant has better reproductive characteristics. These factors
result in higher yields than ordinary rice, also called inbreds.
rice can raise farmers present yields by 15%. With proper
management, farmers can raise yields by up to 240 cavans per
hectare per season or 12 tons/ha/year.
does hybrid rice differ from ordinary rice?
The rice plants we see in farmers
fields today, including the more than 80 modern varieties released
in the Philippines to date (except three) and all our traditional
varieties are all inbred rice. Normally, each rice flower contains
both male and female organs. This allows the plant to perpetuate
or reproduce itself through self-pollination or inbreeding, hence
the term inbredwithout a mans intervention. This
means you can use the grains harvested from inbred rice as seeds
for the next planting season.
hybrid, on the other hand, is a product of two parents. Hence,
new seeds must always be produced for planting the next season
through cross-pollination. These seeds have variable sizes, may
be discolored, partially filled, may have slightly opened hull,
and generally lighter in weight compared with inbreds.
superior parent lines are crossed to get their best characteristics
and combine them in the hybrid plant. Pollination is done by
natural and chemical means. Seeds harvested from the hybrid plant
cannot be used for replanting because hybrid vigor is lost resulting
in lower yield and non-uniform crop stand.
- What are
HYVs, MRVs, Conventional Varieties, and NPT or Super Rice? How
do they differ from hybrid rice?
varieties), MRVs (modern rice varieties), conventional varieties,
and NPT (new plant type) or supper rice are terms used to differentiate
these varieties from traditional varieties. Traditional varieties
are tall and lodge easily. These are low-yielders, producing
from 40-50 cavans/ha, and can be grown once a year since they
take 56 months to mature. Most are photoperiodic. They have low
tiller number, are often susceptible to insect pests and diseases,
and the grains may shatter easily. Many, however, are aromatic
and have good taste or eating quality.
terms HYVs, MRVs and conventional varieties all mean the same.
These varieties are short or semi-dwarf; mature in about 4 months
or less; are non-photoperiodic thus a second or third crop is
possible; high yielding; resistant to insect pests and diseases;
responsible to N; heavy-tillering; and well-suited to irrigated
or Super Rice is a variety designed for the future. Its target
yield of 12 tons/ha will be achieved through a dramatic transformation
of the rice plant architecture; less tillers; more grains per
panicle; heavier grain weight per panicle; longer and extensive
root system; more efficient use of water and nutrients; and greater
resistance to insect pests and diseases. However, this is still
being developed and improved.
varieties, HYVs, MRVs, conventional varieties, and NPTs or super
rice of the future, however, share one thing in common: they
are all self-pollinated unlike hybrid rice.
Phenomenon, that is unique to hybrid rices and also referred
as heterosis, ix expressed during the early begetative
and reproductive growth stages of hybrid rice plant. Young hybrid
rice seedlings have faster root and leaf area development and
better canopy development while the mature plant has increased
total dry matter, greater number of spikelets per unit area,
increased total weight of grains, and consequently, higher yields.
This phenomenon is caused by the synergy among the positive characters
of parental lines. It is important, therefore that good parents
be used in hybrid rice seed production.
hybrid rice varieties can farmers plant today?
are three hybrid rice varieties approved by the National Seed
Industry Council (NSIC): one released nationally, and two approved
for location-specific release. Twenty-one promising hybrids are
now under evaluation in the National Cooperative Tests (NCT)
Rc26H or Magat. The Magat Hybrid bested PSB Tc4 by 17% and
IR50 by 36% during the dry season. This is recommended primarily
for Cagayan and Isabela, although is performed well in Camarines
Sur, Iloilo, Cotabato, Laguna, Bohol, Masbate, Palawan, Capiz,
Pangasinan, Agusan del Sur, and Zamboaga del Sur during the dry
has an average yield of 5.6 t/ha, grows to a height of 88 cm
and with a maturity of 110 days. Its higest yield was recorded
in Maligaya, Nueva Ecija at 11.8 t/ha. It is resistant to blast
and has intermediate reaction to bacterial leaf blight, rice
tungro virus, yellow stem borer, green leafhopper and brown planthoppers.
It has high amylose content, or is hard when cooked.
Rc72H or Mestizo. It has a yield average of 6.3 t/ha during
the dry season, grows to a height of 97 cm with growth duration
of 123 days. A high yield of 11.4 t/ha was attained in Maligaya,
Nueva Ecija during the 1997 DS. This medium maturing hybrid rice
is recommended for nationwide planting. It has better eating
quality with lower amylase, which means that is soft when cooked,
and comparable to or better in eating quality than IR64. Its
cooked rice has some aroma, that is preferred by most consumers.
Rc76H or Panay.
hybrid gave superior performance, notably, in Camarines Sur,
Laguna, and Bukidnon with an average yield of 5.2 t/ha during
the dry season and 4.7 t/ha during the wet season (superiority
over IR72 of 19% and 32%, respectively).
is early at 106 days and height is 102 dm. It is resistant to
blast and has intermediate reaction to bacterial leaf blight
and sheath blight. It has high amylose content, or is hard when
Yield Increase Can Farmers Attain Using Hybrid Rice?
of large-scale on-farm hybrid rice technology demonstration trials
conducted nationwide during 1998 dry season and 1999 dry and
wet seasons indicate that, on average, a farmer can get an additional
779 kg palay/ha using the hybrid Magat and 1272 kg palay/ha using
the hybrid Mestizo, as compared with planting the best and popular
conventional varieties. These represent a yield increase of 15%
and 25% for Magat and Mestizo hybrids, respectively. The highest
yield obtained in these trials came from Mestizo at 12 t/ha in
Cagayan and Bohol provinces.
is Hybrid Rice Production Different from Farmers' Usual Practices?
rice is grown much like ordinary rice except that it requires
greater attention in seedling management. Seedling must be robust
and their roots must be fully developed and should remain intact
in order to minimize transplanting shock. This will allow the
hybrid rice variety to fully express its hybrid vigor
at the early vegetative growth, leading to increased number of
spikelets. This means that hybrid rices have greater yield conversion
using the same inputs as with the usual varieties.
significant shifts from farmers usual practices include:
(1) use of new seeds every planting season, that is, they cannot
use their harvest as seeds; (2) use of only 20 kg seeds per hectare
(farmers use from 80 to 120 kg of seeds per hectare); (3) application
of 10-15 cavans farm wastes and organic materials in the seedbed
to make the soil loose and friable. This is to facilitate seedling
pulling while keeping roots of seedlings intact; (4) sparse seeding
of 50 g/m2 or a total of 20 kg in 400 m2
seedbed; and (5) transplanting of 1-2 seedlings per hill (farmers
transplant 3-5 seedlings per hill).
- Can a Farmer
Replant Seeds Harvested From Hybrid Rice?
While farmers growing ordinary rice varieties can use the grain
they harvested from their existing crop as seeds for planting
the following season, hybrid rice seed must be new every season.
Otherwise, the resulting crop will not be uniform in height and
in maturity. Furthermore, because of reduction in hybrid vigor,
yields could decrease by about 20% and hence, be even lower that
those obtainable from ordinary rice varieties.
derive the benefits of high yield and uniform stand, the farmer
must buy new seeds every season.
- How Much
Does it Cost to Grow Hybrid Rice?
is minimal additional cost in using hybrid rice since farmers
need only 20 kg seeds. At P120/kg, 20 kg seeds cost P2,400 or
about the same as what farmers currently use 3-4 cavans
of 40 kg certified seeds at P700 per cavan, or P2,100
P2,800. The additional cost will be on the use of organic fertilizer,
gathering of organic wastes and incorporation in the seedbed,
weeding of sparsely sown seedbed, extra care in seedling pulling
and transplanting of 1-2 seedlings per hill, and replanting of
on actual surveys, the average production cost incurred by hybrid
rice farmers is P22,006 per season that was not significantly
different from the P21,717 average cost of producing ordinary
Much Can the Farmer Profit From Hybrid Rice?
commercial rice production.
At a conservative yield of 5 tons per hectare, which is equivalent
to 100 cavans of palay at 50 kg/cavan, a farmer gets a net return
of P24,763/ha. Based on actual techno demo data, a hybrid rice
farmer can get a net incremental benefit of not less than P6,000/ha/season,
over the use of the best ordinary variety, even if he uses
40 kg/ha hybrid seeds. Any increase in yield level beyond 5 tons
(up to 12 tons or 240 cavans/ha as has been clearly demonstrated
in techno demo trials), would mean even higher profitability.
seed production. Producing hybrid seeds offers new income
opportunities for seed growers, rural farm hands, and women.
Based on actual surveys, the average cost of producing hybrid
seeds is P33,492/ha on-farm and P45,842 on research stations.
If a yield of one-ton is attained, a hybrid seed producer can
get a net profit of abut P92,000/ha/season. The higher the seed
yield attained (a record yield of 3.0t/ha/season has been attained
at PhilRice), the greater the profit.
the hybrid seed price of P120/kg, a hybrid seed producer must
get at least 232 kg seeds/ha and 2 t/ha male parent seed to recover
total cost; a seed yield of 368 kg/ha to equal the income of
commercial palay producers; and a seed yield of 580 kg/ha to
equal the income form ordinary rice seed production.
Hybrid Rice Lead us to Self-Sufficiency?
rice is one of the key technologies that can make the country
self-sufficient in rice. Our level of rice importation during
the normal years is about 600,000 metric tons (mt). A minimum
yield increase of one mt/ha through hybrid rice cultivation in
the 800,000 ha irrigated rice area in the country can result
in an additional rice production of 1.6 mt of palay (960,000
mt milled rice), easily making the country self-sufficient in
are the Thrusts of the DA and PhilRice on Hybrid Rice?
Department of Agriculture (DA) has made the development and use
of hybrid rice technology an integral component of its rice production
program. Hybrid rice research and development ( R & D), seed
production, training, technology demonstration, and information
dissemination activities initiated in 1998, are continuously
being conducted in the 15 provinces for targeted hybrid rice
cultivation (Ilocos Norte, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Ecija, Camarines
Sur, Leyte, Maguindanao, South Cotabato, Lanao del Norte and
the lead implementing agency for the hybrid rice program of the
DA, on the other hand, established a Hybrid Rice R &D Program
(HRP) in 1998, to continuously generate new and/or improve location-specific
hybrid rice technologies. During its first full year (CY 1999)
of implementation, the HRP put into operation 18 RD&E projects,
with a total of 91 studies, implemented by 85 lead scientists
and technical personnel. These included activities on germplasm
conservation, varietal development, biotechnology, planting,
nutrient, water and pest management, engineering and mechanization,
socio-economics, and seed production. A PhilRice Hybrid Rice
Center, based in San Mateo, Isabela was also established in 1998.
- Who Will
Produce Hybrid Seeds?
sector groups will produce, distribute, and market hybrid rice
seeds. These include seed growers cooperatives, seed companies,
interested NGOs and other organized groups, as well as accredited
individual seed growers. PhilRice is paying special attention
to the involvement of organized groups with contiguous seed production
areas to be involved in hybrid rice production. This will reduce
isolation problems, simplify seed certification, facilitate seed
distribution and marketing, and allow seed growers to benefit
from the economics of scale (e.g., loans, etc)
members of the National Rice Seed Production Network (SeedNet)
and the private sector will produce the foundation seeds of parental
lines for use in hybrid seed production. PhilRice, IRRI and the
University of the Philippines at Los Baños will produce
nucleus and breeder seeds of released public hybrids. Nucleus,
breeder, foundation, and certified seeds of proprietary hybrids
such as Panay will be produced by the concerned seed companies.
SeedNet presently has 95 active member (115 total) located in
strategic rice growing areas of the country. PhilRice and IRRI
have trained selected SeedNet personnel on parental hybrid seed
production. For hybrid seed production, over 20 training courses
were held since 1997, with over 800 participants coming from
24 provinces of the country. These included seed growers, seed
certifying officers, seed inspectors, field technicians, provincial
seed coordinators, and other key players in the rice sector.
- What Countries
Have Successfully Grown Hybrid Rice?
grows hybrid rice in 17 million ha out of its total 33 million
ha rice area. India grows hybrid rice in 150,000 ha while Vietnam
cultivates 400,000 ha to hybrid rice. Hybrid rice technology
helped China increase its rice production form 140 million tons
in 1978 to 188 million tons in 1990. It accounts for 66% of Chinas
total production and 20 percent of the worlds total rice
supply. Furthermore, hybrid rice technology has saved China more
than 2 M ha of agricultural lands now being used of other purposes
while preserving the environment. At least 17 other countries
have initiated hybrid rice programs.
Supports The Philippines in its Hybrid Rice Program?
Philippines Hybrid Program is directly supported by the
International Rice Research Institute(IRRI), Food and Agriculture
Organization (FAO), of the United Nations, Asian Development
Bank (ADB), the Peoples Republic of China (PROC), and Rockefeller
Foundation, Inc. (RF), and, indirectly, by the Japan International
Cooperation Agency (JICA).
based in Los Baños, Laguna, develops hybrid parent materials
and promising hybrid rice lines that are entered into the national
yield trials. It also helps train technical personnel from the
national rice R & D network on both hybrid rice breeding
and seed production and potential hybrid rice seed growers from
the both public and private sectors.
FAO is assisting the Philippine government develop its hybrid
program by strengthening its manpower base. Under the Technical
Cooperation Program (TCP) project entitled, Strengthening
the National Capacity for Hybrid Rice Development and Use,
for example, FAO assists the Philippine government strengthen
its hybrid rice technical- and seed production personnel by providing
in-country and foreign training opportunities, procurement of
relevant equipment, and provision of consultancy services.
ADB provinces support in the areas of technology generation,
seed production, and technology promotion. Under a project coordinated
by IRRI, the Philippines is a recipient of ADB funds that are
used for nucleus and breeder seed production, refinement of seed
production technologies, large-scale seed production, training,
and information generation and dissemination.
form China is in the form of collaborative undertakings with
noted Chinese hybrid rice institutions. PhilRice has implementation
collaborative activities on breeding with Yunnan Agricultural
University (YAU) since 1993, on varietal testing and seed
production with the Jiangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences
(JAAS) since 1995 and the Guangxi Academy of Agricultural
Sciences (GAAS) since 1997, and on breeding with Fujian
Agricultural University (FAU) since 1998. Furthermore, in
1999, PhilRice has also forged a technical cooperation on hybrid
rice technology with Yangzhou
breeding and biotechnology) and the Jiangxi Provincial Government
(on hybrid rice seed production). In 1999, the DA also forged
a technical cooperation agreement on hybrid rice with the Chinese
Ministry of Agriculture to be implemented by PhilRice and
the Hunan Provincial Seed Company. Informal collaborations
have also been forged by PhilRice with the China National Rice
Research Institute (CNRRI) and the South China Agricultural University
assistance comes through its support to PhilRices biotechnology
program. For hybrid rice, biotechnology is being used to expedite
the development of superior hybrids by widening parental genetic
base, transferring important genes such as thermo-sensitive genetic
male sterility for two-line hybrid breeding and resistances to
insect pests and diseases. The biotechnological approaches being
used to carry out these activities are molecular marker-assisted
breeding, plant transformation in in-vitro culture. The ultimate
goal would be to use biotechnology in developing, through plant
apoximis, outstanding hybrids whose seeds can be replanted by
resource-poor farmers just like inbred rice.
support comes through its Technical Cooperation Project with
PhilRice. Under this project, high yielding and high quality
japonica rice from Japan are introduced to the Philippines to
serve as germplasm material for breeding work. These materials
are then crossed with Philippine indica varieties to produce
high yielding, resistance, and good tasting rice. This activity
increases the genetic base for the selection of possible parent
materials for future hybrid breeding work.